Can a woman get pregnant from her own bone marrow
Credit: Getty Images. The study shows that when an egg is fertilized, stem cells leave the bone marrow and travel via the bloodstream to the uterus, where they help transform the uterine lining for implantation. If the lining fails to go through this essential transformation, the embryo cannot implant, and the body terminates the pregnancy. But knowing that bone marrow has a significant role is a paradigm shift.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: IVG: Making Babies From Skin Cells
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Bone marrow transplant BMT is a type of therapy for people with certain types of cancer or other diseases. A bone marrow transplant is done by taking cells that are found in the bone marrow called stem cells. These cells are filtered. They are then either given back to the donor or to another person. The goal of BMT is to put healthy bone marrow cells into a person after his or her own unhealthy bone marrow has been treated to kill the abnormal cells.
Bone marrow is the soft, spongy tissue inside bones. It is where most of the body's blood cells develop and are stored. The cells that make other blood cells are called stem cells. It is the stem cells that are needed in bone marrow transplant.
The most basic of the stem cells is called the pluripotent stem cell. This is different than other blood cells in these ways:. A bone marrow transplant is done by transferring stem cells from 1 person to another. Stem cells can either be collected from the circulating cells in the blood the peripheral system or from the bone marrow:. Peripheral blood stem cells. Peripheral blood stem cells PBSCs are collected by apheresis. This is a process in which the donor is connected to a special cell separation machine by a needle inserted in arm veins.
Blood is taken from 1 vein and is circulated though the machine. This removes the stem cells and returns the remaining blood and plasma back to the donor through another needle inserted into the opposite arm.
Several sessions may be needed to collect enough stem cells to ensure a chance of successful engraftment in the recipient. A medicine may be given to the donor for about 1 week before apheresis.
This medicine will cause the bone marrow to make more new stem cells. These new stem cells will be released from the marrow and into the blood system. They can then be collected from the blood during apheresis. Bone marrow harvest. This is done by collecting stem cells with a needle placed into the marrow.
Most sites used for bone marrow harvesting are in the hip bones and the sternum. The procedure takes place in the operating room. The donor will be anesthetized during the harvest and will not feel the needle. In recovery, the donor may have some pain in the areas where the needle was inserted. There are different types of bone marrow transplants. This depends on who the donor is. The types of BMT include:.
Autologous bone marrow transplant. The donor is also the recipient. Stem cells are taken from the person either by bone marrow harvest or apheresis. Apheresis is a process of taking peripheral blood stem cells. The cells are frozen. They then given back to the person after they have treatment.
This is often called rescue instead of a transplant. Allogeneic bone marrow transplant. The donor shares the same genetic type as the recipient. The donor may be a brother or a sister. Stem cells are taken by bone marrow harvest. Or they may be taken with apheresis. Other donors for allogeneic bone marrow transplants may include:. A parent. A haploid-identical match is when the donor is a parent and the genetic match is at least half identical to the recipient.
These transplants are rare. Unrelated bone marrow transplants UBMT. This is also called matched unrelated donor MUD. The genetically-matched marrow or stem cells are from an unrelated donor.
Unrelated donors are found through national bone marrow registries. Umbilical cord blood transplant. Stem cells are taken from an umbilical cord right after the birth of a baby. These stem cells reproduce into mature, working blood cells quicker and better than stem cells taken from bone marrow. The stem cells are tested, typed, counted, and frozen until they are needed for a transplant.
Matching is done by typing human leukocyte antigen HLA tissue. Leukocytes are a type of white blood cell. The antigens on the surface of these white blood cells define the genetic makeup of a person's immune system. There are at least HLA antigens. But there are a few major antigens that can show if a donor and recipient are a match.
Researchers are still learning the role all antigens play in the process of a bone marrow transplant. The more antigens that match, the better the donated marrow will work with the recipient. This is called engraftment. This is when the stem cells make their way to the marrow and begin making new blood cells.
Most of the genes that define the human immune system are on 1 chromosome. We only have 2 of each chromosome, 1 we received from each of our parents. Because of this, a full sibling of a person in need of a transplant has a 1 in 4 chance of having the same set of chromosomes.
This means they are a full match for a transplant. If an autologous transplant is planned, stem cells collected from either peripheral apheresis or harvest are counted, screened, and ready to infuse. The goal of a bone marrow transplant is to cure many diseases and types of cancer. In some cases, the doses of chemotherapy chemo or radiation needed to cure a cancer are so high that a person's bone marrow stem cells will be permanently damaged or destroyed by the treatment.
Then a bone marrow transplant may be needed. Bone marrow transplants may also be needed if the bone marrow has been destroyed by a disease. Replace diseased bone marrow with healthy bone marrow for conditions such as leukemia, aplastic anemia, and sickle cell anemia. Help build a new immune system that will fight leukemia or other cancers not killed by chemo or radiation.
Replace the bone marrow and restore its normal function after high doses of chemo or radiation are given to treat cancer. This is often called rescue.
Replace bone marrow with healthy bone marrow to prevent more damage from a genetic disease such as Hurler's syndrome or adrenoleukodystrophy. Talk with your healthcare provider and specialists in bone marrow transplants about risks and benefits before the procedure. Infections are likely in a recipient with severe bone marrow suppression. Bacterial infections are the most common. Viral and fungal infections can be life-threatening. Any infection can cause an extended hospital stay.
They can prevent or delay engraftment. They can also cause permanent organ damage. Antibiotics, antifungal medicines, and antiviral medicines are often given to try to prevent serious infection. Low platelets and low red blood cells. Thrombocytopenia low platelets and anemia low red blood cells can be dangerous and even life-threatening. These can happen when bone marrow is not making new cells yet.
Low platelets can cause dangerous bleeding in the lungs, gastrointestinal GI tract, and brain. Pain related to mouth sores and gastrointestinal GI irritation is common.
High doses of chemo and radiation can cause severe mucositis. This is inflammation of the mouth and GI tract. Fluid overload. This is a complication that can lead to pneumonia, liver damage, and high blood pressure.
The main reason for fluid overload is because the kidneys cannot keep up with the large amount of fluid being given. The fluid is given in the form of intravenous IV medicines, nutrition, and blood products. The kidneys may also be damaged.
Creating a Family after Transplant: Medically Assisted Reproduction and Adoption Options
Stem cells have generated such an enormous amount of interest, in part, because of their applications related to areas such as fertility and genetics. In that same light, their interest for solving reproductive challenges has also generated a great deal of controversy. This is particularly true in the application of stem cells to facilitate reproduction for gay couples. At present, there are a number of research laboratories that are focused on the creation of cells that are genetically male but have been produced from eggs. Alternately, they are also trying to create sperm from female eggs.
Learn strategies to create a family after transplant including medically assisted reproduction and adoption. Share this page. Most, but not all, survivors are infertile after a bone marrow, stem cell or cord blood transplant. Men may be able to preserve sperm, and some women may be able to collect and store eggs or embryos prior to transplant. Transplant survivors can build families after transplant through medically assisted reproduction or adoption. And I'm just going to talk, kind of go through some very basic things that we do in our practice to help both men and women have a family after transplant. We'll talk about what that evaluation of fertility may look like and options. I'm first just going to talk about some different testing we can look at for both men and women to figure out if you are infertile after having a transplant. And then I'm going to talk about fertility options for women, including IVF, using eggs or embryos that might've been frozen before the transplant, IVF using an egg donor, and also IVF using donated embryos. We'll also talk a little bit about safety issues with pregnancy after transplant, and questions to ask to determine if it is safe to carry a pregnancy.
Sperm Cells Created From Human Bone Marrow
The breakthrough paves the way for lesbian couples to have children that are biologically their own. Researchers at Newcastle upon Tyne University say their technique will help lead to new treatments for infertility. But critics warn that it sidelines men and raises the prospect of babies being born through entirely artificial means. The research centres around stem cells - the body's 'mother' cells which can turn into any other type of cell.
Human bone marrow has been used to create early-stage sperm cells for the first time, a scientific step forward that will help researchers understand more about how sperm cells are created. For the experiment, Prof Nayernia and his team took bone marrow from male volunteers and isolated the mesenchymal stem cells. These cells have previously been found to grow into other body tissues such as muscle.
Bone marrow stem cells may be vital for pregnancy
Bone marrow failure diseases frequently occur in women who are young and of child bearing age. People with these diseases have legitimate concerns about whether a pregnancy will cause their infants to suffer from the disease or its treatment, or whether their own disease will relapse. But the goal of modern therapy and modern obstetrics is to minimize both maternal and fetal complications. Experience from published reports suggests that in the past ten years, both maternal health and fetal outcomes have improved in women with aplastic anemia and PNH.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: What Does Bone Marrow Actually Do?
The study shows that when an egg is fertilized, stem cells leave the bone marrow and travel via the bloodstream to the uterus, where they help transform the uterine lining for implantation. If the lining fails to go through this essential transformation, the embryo cannot implant, and the body terminates the pregnancy. But knowing that bone marrow has a significant role is a paradigm shift. In this study, the researchers were able to prove the physiological relevance of stem cells to pregnancy. Reshef Tal , first author of the study and assistant professor of obstetrics, gynecology and reproductive sciences at Yale.
Pregnancy in Bone Marrow Failure Disease
But recently a team of scientists announced they had made artificial sperm from human bone marrow , and media reports abounded with the dire news that my goodfellas and by extension, me had been rendered unnecessary. There are at least half a dozen reasons why such speculation is silly, some scientific and some practical. For example, as long as sex feels good and remains no more expensive than dinner and a bottle of wine, most people will use natural-grown sperm. Still, suggests Gregory Stock, director of the program on medicine, society and technology at the UCLA School of Medicine and the CEO of a biotech company called Signum Biosciences, it is very interesting that there were any stories at all. Experiments have created eggs and sperm, so-called artificial gametes, from embryonic stem cells and other cell types for years now with limited success, so the bone marrow work does not represent a giant leap.
I guess after being told to "Go Fuck Yourself" for so many years, these scientists finally found a way to do it. There will be some interesting debates raging about this one for a long time. I'm of the opinion that on the whole, we are better off with the process of gene mixing than practicing self-eugenics. Since when is human reproduction about strengthening the gene pool, and since when are your "gay friends" inherently unable to reproduce naturally? Better question is "since when is natural a good thing"?
Bone marrow transplant BMT is a type of therapy for people with certain types of cancer or other diseases. A bone marrow transplant is done by taking cells that are found in the bone marrow called stem cells. These cells are filtered.
By Roxanne Khamsi. In a first step towards creating artificial sperm cells, researchers have turned human bone marrow tissue into primitive sperm cells. If these precursor cells can be coaxed into becoming fully functioning sperm cells, the technique could allow infertile men to father their own children, and even allow women to produce their own sperm. But experts caution that provoking the sperm precursors to fully mature presents a serious challenge.